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Writing essay introduction pdf -

It can be much less stressful to throw all your thoughts down on paper, before you start trying to find answers to these questions. Once they are down there it will be easier for you to start to review them critically and to see where you need to focus your reading and note taking. Editing your writing as you develop your ideas is a positive not a negative process the more you cross out, re-write, and re-order, the better your essay should become.


Your decisions on structure will be based on a combination of the requirements of your department the potential of the essay title and your own preferences and skills. This practice is now widely accepted where it makes good sense. Being a critical writer After attending closely to the title and establishing a useful structure a third main element in the essay-writing process is the confident use of critical writing. The need to use such a wide range of academic skills is probably the main reason why the essay format is so popular with tutors as an assignment. As a tutor has said Creme and Lea, 1997 p41 When my students ask me about essay writing, there are three main pieces of advice that I give them. You need to read every single word of it, and to squeeze out as much guidance you can from the title.

evidence policy theory practice case studies examples debates. Efficient reading All three of the processes described above will inform your decisions about what you need to read for a particular essay. The aim is to leave your reader feeling that you have done a good job.


Similarly, a structure of some kind is probably essential for every essay, however revolutionary. These criticisms highlight the three basic elements of good essay writing establishing a relevant structure that will help you show the development of your argument and using critical writing as much as possible with descriptive writing being used where necessary, but kept to a minimum.

It can be a way of making a lot of progress quite quickly.

The essay is used as a form of assessment in many academic disciplines, and is used in both coursework and exams. While a certain level of efficiency is desirable, it is also important to remain flexible enough to identify relevant and interesting ideas that you had not anticipated.


Instead, you can catch all of your ideas, in no particular order, on a sheet or two of A4. You ve done most of the hard work already in the reading, evaluating, and writing. Stott 2001 p 37 The introduction A powerful introduction is invaluable. However, even in those essays that appear to be highly creative, unscientific, or personal, an argument of some kind is being made. You will need to adapt and extend this basic structure to fit with your own discipline and the precise task set. The example below relates to the essay title used on the previous page. You need to break down the essay title into its component parts, and consider possible ways of addressing them work with these component parts, as you select your reading and make relevant notes build up the essay using the material you have collected ordering it presenting and discussing it and forming it into a coherent argument. In different subject areas, and with different styles of writing, the term argument may seem more or less relevant. In Making your case a practical guide to essay writing.

When in doubt about any aspect of your reading for the essay, or about your writing, the first step is to go back and consult the essay title. These lists suggest questions to ask of your writing when you are reviewing it.

A useful generic structure is to begin with a general point about the central issue show your understanding of the task that has been set show how you plan to address the title in your essay structure make a link to the first point.


It is therefore useful to go into the writing process expecting to make revisions.


The composers Haydn and Mozart, working in the 18th century, tended to write symphonies to fit reliably and closely within what was called symphonic form. It may be possible to use only one paragraph for your introduction, but it may fall more easily into two or more. However, even in those essays that appear to be highly creative, unscientific, or personal, an argument of some kind is being made. This set out a pattern for the numbers of movements within the symphony, and for the general structure of writing within each movement. There are several generic structures that can help you start to think about your essay structure e. And inaccurate spelling and poor grammar can make for very irritating reading for the person marking it. Underpinning the structure will be the argument your essay is making. Careless use of commas can actually change the meaning of a sentence. may be useful when reviewing your own reference list. overall chronological structure broken down by comparisons according to the elements of the title overall thematic structure broken down by sub-themes overall comparative structure broken down by context. Here is an example of an introduction for an essay entitled Examine and compare the nature and development of the tragic figures of Macbeth and Dr Faustus in their respective plays. Perhaps a more suitable word than structure in those cases may be pattern, or impression, or atmosphere although these merge into the field of creative writing rather than essay writing. Writing is an active and constructive process it is not merely a neutral recording of your thoughts.


Realistically, it is possible that they may even decide not to make that effort. Stott 2001 p 37 The introduction A powerful introduction is invaluable. A relevant and useful structure to support the presentation of your response to the title is vital.


Editing and proof reading are not the icing on the cake, as some people think. Editing is a crucial part of the process not an optional extra. In different subject areas, and with different styles of writing, the term argument may seem more or less relevant.


The guidance given to you by the title is freely available, and is your best clue to what is required in your essay.

Editing Finally, you need to take a break from your essay so that you can return to it with fresh eyes for the final editing.

The structure you choose needs to be one that will be most helpful to you in addressing the essay title. Being a critical writer After attending closely to the title and establishing a useful structure a third main element in the essay-writing process is the confident use of critical writing. When in doubt about any aspect of your reading for the essay, or about your writing, the first step is to go back and consult the essay title.


Show your understanding of the task set When comparing the nature of the two plays respective heroes, both parallels and contrasts can be found.

Common criticism given to students is that their essay does not have enough critical writing. But is what s crucial the ability to manipulate that basic, raw material in order to make a convincing argument.


Again this may be strong and obvious, or it may be almost invisible, but it needs to be there.

Fortunately, there is scope for developing efficiency in several ways making intelligent decisions, based on your initial planning, about which sources to target, so you don t spend time reading less relevant, or even completely irrelevant material reading with a purpose, so that you are looking out for particularly relevant material, rather than paying equal attention to material that is less relevant systematic note taking, so that you record the most relevant material, and that you have full reference details including page numbers of direct quotes of all material you may end up using.


In addition to these you will probably need to establish a relating to the particular elements you need to focus on e. You begin there you end there and everything in between needs to be placed in relation to that title. Breaking it down then building it up Essentially, this is what you are doing within the essay process breaking ideas down, then building them up again. It can be much less stressful to throw all your thoughts down on paper, before you start trying to find answers to these questions. overall chronological structure broken down by comparisons according to the elements of the title overall thematic structure broken down by sub-themes overall comparative structure broken down by context.


Show how you plan to address the title In the first section of this essay, the role of the tragic hero will be considered The second section of the essay will examine the nature Finally, a comparison will be made of the development of the two Make a link to the first point In examining the characters tragic qualities, a useful starting point is Aristotle s definition of tragedy Although the introduction appears at the beginning of your essay, you may prefer to write it towards the end of the drafting process It is only when you have completed a piece of writing that you can introduce it to the reader.

Reference to the larger issue The differences lie in the development of the characters in what are essentially two different types of plays.

In these early stages of your thinking you may not be sure which of your ideas you want to follow up and which you will be discarding. This fits with the style of the morality play the erring Faustus must be seen to be humbled at his end for the morality to be effective Highlighting the most important aspects It is this strong element of morality in Dr Faustus that ultimately divides the two leading characters.

Helping your readers This section heading is in quotes as it is also the heading of chapter 8, pages 80-92, in Barass 1982. Editing and proof reading are not the icing on the cake, as some people think. Expect to undertake an iterative process of planning, reading, drafting, reviewing, planning, reading, re-drafting, and editing. The heart of the essay The middle part of the essay must fulfil the promises made in your introduction, and must support your final conclusions.

Stott 2001 p 37 The introduction A powerful introduction is invaluable. Barass 1982 p80 makes the simple but valid statement, that By making things easy for your readers, you help yourself to convey information and ideas.

But is what s crucial the ability to manipulate that basic, raw material in order to make a convincing argument. Again this may be strong and obvious, or it may be almost invisible, but it needs to be there. The essay structure is not an end in itself, but a means to an end the end is the quality of the argument. You need to break down the essay title into its component parts, and consider possible ways of addressing them work with these component parts, as you select your reading and make relevant notes build up the essay using the material you have collected ordering it presenting and discussing it and forming it into a coherent argument.

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