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Reading research papers - How to Read a Scientific Paper

Discussion The discussion section is the authors opportunity to give you their opinions. Write one or more paragraphs to summarize the results for each experiment, each figure, and each table. Mar 7 14 at 6 53 I guess what it is is that, if there is something complicated in programming, then if I start playing with it, I can start to see how each tiny piece works, which leads quickly to understanding the flow of everything and how it all works.

If it is very heavy going, then stopping and seeking additional information is usually the way to go.


It is not the aim of this review to detail this literature fully except where it relates to possible causes for reading differences between paper and screen. FINAL STEP Don t neglect doing this What do other researchers say about this paper? Beware of articles published in inappropriate journals, no matter how respectable E. Don t yet try to decide what the results mean just write down what they are. Go read, then go back to my last post and read one of the papers that I linked to like and try to identify the null hypotheses in it.

Mar 7 14 at 6 48 If you have no memory of your understanding, how will you understand it in the future? Alphabetical numbering We build on previous results that X 42 and Y 17 are true. a1600047 Elisabeth Pain is contributing editor for Europe. An abstract can be misleading, but I am often not qualified enough to judge that.


If this is the case, then there is no need for doing a Chi-square Test.


It will pay off in your future reading and research. 1983 found that novices tend to prefer paging probably based on its close adherence to the book metaphor and Dillon et al 1990b report that a scrolling mechanism was the most frequently cited improvement suggested by subjects assessing their reading interface.

For certain types of studies, a lack of confidence intervals is a major red flag.

I think the most important ingredient for being able to read scientific papers quickly and well is practice. It s the same feeling as finding a book you really like to read or a new TV series you really like to watch. Of course we want to communicate in black and white about our tests significance!

Concerned with perceptual or physical rather than mainly cognitive issues, this work has been carried out mainly on proofreading short texts and has produced detailed results on the likely performance deficits for certain screen types. Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction.


How do I get it at an intuitive level without having to just memorize these basics like DeMorgan s Law not the name, but what it does? Physical Review Letters mix notes with the references. There is a good probability that your husband s cousin s kids have seen at least some of our projects in school.


A scrolling facility is therefore liable to weaken these relationships and offers the reader only the relative positional cues that an item has with its immediate neighbours. 2 Visual angle Gould 1986 hypothesised that due to the usually longer line lengths on VDUs the visual angle subtended by lines in each medium differs and that people have learned to compensate for the longer lines on VDUs by sitting further away from them when reading. I would really appreciate a copy of the PDF to distribute to a first year course I am teaching at Australian Catholic University. 05 probability that the differences between the observed distribution and the expected distribution occurred by accident. Include as much detail as you need to fully understand the work. You sometimes need to be careful when you just pick out the results from a paper. Computer searches- This is a good way to go if you know what topic you want to study, but you do not have a good starting place.

You may also need to go to the Supplementary Online Information file to find some of the results. Gould et al 1987b have empirically demonstrated that under the right conditions such differences between the two presentation media disappear. Assessing the Subject Cells, Model Organisms, and Humans A small but important detail What are an experiment s test subjects? Plus it give me a feel that I have studied the paper lol- 21 Oct 2011, 15 44 I use highlighters too! Consider the parts of a typical paper Motivation. Don t waste time repeating the parts that are easy for you. Check out for a more complete index of science journals. But if you found the article via a citation search, you may have to skim the whole thing to find the citation.


Caution in interpretation of these results is suggested by the authors. It s great for anyone who wants or needs a thorough understanding of the science, such as Impact of Social Sciences How to read and understand a scientific paper a guide for non-scienti Thank you very much for sharing a guide that will help me to follow the best standards for writing a scientific paper even I am not a scientist.

Often the commentary is subtle, so it takes practice to learn to read between the lines. They reported significant differences between paper and both hypertext conditions the latter proving worse, with word processor users spending about twice as long as paper readers in these sections a statistically difference however. This leads children to falsely assume that reading is no longer important for them. I really have trouble focusing during these readings. Since you say If you like it, share it I took the liberty of translating thiis useful piece into Dutch and sharing it through LinkedIn, here. She concluded that for information location tasks, the ability to see a window s contents is not as important as being able to identify a permanent location for a section of text. From the get-go T he purpose of research is to answer a question or test a prediction, generally stated in the form of hypotheses. We conducted an experiment to see if editors at the BMJ could make decisions about research papers based on reading only the abstracts, and to compare how each initial decision differed from the final one after reading the whole submission.


I began to believe that math wasn t what I wanted to do with my life anymore. Articles listed as refs in papers from different groups were the next thing I tried to look up. Reliable journals- People will often page through two or three of their favorite journals just to look for interesting articles and to generally keep up with what is going on in science. This can be a great source of colorful anecdotes elevators needing to be disabled to ensure good data, and that sort of thing, but unless you re a hard-core precision measurement junkie, you can probably skip most of it to get to the final numbers.

These steps and tips will be useful to anyone interested in the presentation of scientific findings and raise important points for scientists to consider with their own writing practice. You will be doing THEM a favor by having them explain to you in terms you understand what a complex paper means. Finally if you can not implement the method in the paper then do not worry, you get a concept and its limitations that can prove vital for your research.


Fantastic for particularly for citizens or scientists not at large research Universities with wide journal access, but perhaps less legal at this time.


Recent evidence from Muter and Mauretto 1991 revealed that approximately 50 of subjects in their comparative studies of reading from paper and current screens expressed a preference for screen, lending some support to the argument that preferences are shifting as screen technology improves.


Despite this, it is widely accepted that the reading process with screens is different than that with paper regardless of any outcome differences.

1989 Lost in Hyperspace Cognitive Mapping and Navigation in a Hypertext Environment.


And thus we can train people to watch for sleights of hand, such as shifting primary outcomes, data mining, salami slicing, etc.


The issue of comprehension has not been as fully researched as one might expect, perhaps in no small way due to the difficulty of devising a suitable means of quantification i.


I especially love this one Don t yet try to decide what the results mean, just write down what they are. I mean, I didn t check D- but still seemed very bored by very many papers many of which he still considered his duty to read carefully in order to write his review and other papers. 2002 Journal of Optics A Pure and Applied Optics, 4 4.

An abstract can be misleading, but I am often not qualified enough to judge that.

that what is published, especially in a single article, is anything resembling a fact. I was surprised at their which doesn t match what I would have expected from Kachu 2004, but it does cure the exponential growth problem in this domain.

a1600047 Elisabeth Pain is contributing editor for Europe.


The oldest, and one of the most prestigious, peer-reviewed medical journals. I am also watching a bunch of the math lectures on coursera related to research papers I m interested in, which is helpful. The amount of perceived flicker will obviously depend on both the refresh rate and the phosphor s persistence the more frequent the refresh rate and the longer the persistence, the less perceived flicker. Find out if others have read it A lot of the papers I find interesting other people also find interesting. And those using e-readers had significantly less REM sleep on average. A full-length version of this post originally appeared. The map at the top of the story shows massive use in India, Iran, Russia and China, supporting Elbakyan s view that researchers in developing or politically fractured countries as was hers, growing up in Kazakhstan are hungry to tap into the world s knowledge.


It s not just you science papers are getting harder to read Nature News Comment International weekly journal of science Search Go It s not just you science papers are getting harder to read Papers from 2015 are a tougher read than some from the nineteenth century and the problem isn t just about words, says. The first step is to examine each figure and table. or blogs and require a level of skill and undoubtedly a greater amount of patience. So to get the most out of the results section, make sure to spend ample time thoroughly looking at all the graphs, pictures, and tables, and reading their accompanying legends! GUIDE, for example, uses such forms as boxes, arrows and circles when the cursor moves over an actionable area of the document, while HyperCard provides numerous button shapes that cause different document manipulations to occur.


Although they are sometimes misleading as anyone who has done a computer reference search knows they are usually quite informative and should be looked at early on. Two particular pet hates of mine are too much jargon and too much assumed knowledge, which is depressingly common. Determination of orientation parameters in drawn films of thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer polypropylene blends using WAXS. ISSN 1361-648X doi 2009 Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp314. Starr 1984 concluded that relative subjective evaluations of VDUs and paper are highly dependent on the quality of the paper document, though one may add that the quality of the VDU display probably has something to do with it too.

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